Business plan examples: How to start your business. You have already developed and described a strategy for developing your business. Now it’s time to calculate everything in detail. This will help you step by step instructions: how to draw up a business plan.
A business plan is a detailed description of your project with calculations and prospects for the next few years. It is needed by potential investors or the bank in which you will go for a loan; partners, intermediaries, your team and, ultimately, you as the creator of the project.
A business plan is usually written three to five years in advance. But you can take a year, because economic conditions are changing rapidly.
The main objective of the business plan is to convince potential partners that this is an interesting project from the point of view of investments that will pay back the invested money and effort.
If you are going to open a typical offline business or franchise business (for example, a coffee shop and a candy store), the Business Navigator of the Federal Corporation for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME Corporation) will automatically help you to draw up a business plan in a minute .
After registering on the site, you can choose the type of business, choose the appropriate geolocation in your city, evaluate competition and get an income forecast. Enter the necessary parameters – and immediately get a finished document, which remains only to be printed. If you need a loan, with this document you can go straight to one of the banks that cooperates with the SME Corporation.
If you had your own unusual business idea, you will have to draw up a business plan yourself.
A business plan includes a description of a product or service, market analysis, a production plan, the organizational structure of your company, a marketing strategy for promoting products, and a financial plan that summarizes all the basic calculations. A business plan must answer the questions: how much money is required to launch the project and in what terms will it pay off?
The resume is at the beginning of the business plan, but you will write it at the very end. This is a summary of the entire document – the conclusions that you will draw based on detailed calculations. After reading the resume, investors decide whether to study your plan further or not to waste time on it.
This item includes a brief description of the project and its competitive advantages, information about potential customers and partners. Tell us how you are going to sell your product or service and how to advertise them. Indicate what starting capital you need and where you plan to take it. Describe the key stages of the development of the project and be sure to include the payback period and planned profitability.
Let’s consider how to draw up a business plan using the example of an online chocolate store with delivery in a small city. Unlike analogues, in this store the buyer will be able to choose the original filling, design and packaging. For this, the site will have a special constructor.
2. Product Description
In this section, you need to describe in detail the service or product that you offer, and analyze their potential.
You can compare your product with similar ones and offer options for improving your product.
Product Description Example
|Type of business||An original chocolate online store with an online designer for self-assembly|
|Product / service||Colored chocolate with unusual additives, unique design and unusual design, which the buyer can choose for himself. There are no direct analogues in the city|
|Business model||Development and promotion of a product on its own, first production independently, then through a private factory, sale and delivery with the involvement of contractors on freelance|
|Relevance||Online trading is growing, interest in confectionery products is not declining. New interactive format can attract an audience|
|Development options||Expand the assortment, open chocolatery and in the future sell the franchise|
3. Market analysis
From the already developed business strategy, transfer market analysis to the business plan. Competitors ’proposals should be considered in more detail.
In the case of the online chocolate store, competitors will be not only online candy stores, but also pastry shops, gift shops, supermarkets and private craftsmen making custom-made sweets.
Supermarkets In your city there are 5 large supermarkets with a wide assortment of chocolate. They account for 55% of chocolate sales.
Confectionery shops. The city has 50 points of sale of sweets, 5 of them trade online. 10 sell only chocolate and only 1 of them has its own website. 25% of the market in terms of sales.
Shops of original gifts. 30 online gift shops. 10% of the market in terms of sales.
Private online sellers. About 20 profitable private traders. 10% of sales.
Based on the analysis, conclude: what market share you can claim.
For example, you expect that in the first three years of operation, your online chocolate store will occupy a 35% share of online chocolate sales in the city.
4. Characteristics of potential buyers
Describe in detail who you are targeting, to whom you will offer your product or service. The answer: “To everyone” is incorrect. It’s like firing a cannon at a sparrow. At the stage of drawing up a business strategy, you should have defined your target audience.
Suppose you have chosen original buyers for an online store of original chocolate. They love non-standard things and should appreciate the opportunity to make chocolate according to their own taste and design. You estimated the share of these users at 20% of the total number of those who buy sweets online. This should ensure the sale of 2500 bars of chocolate per month one year after launch.
5. Production plan and costing
To calculate the cost you need to evaluate:
- direct costs for the production or purchase of raw materials and packaging from the supplier;
- remuneration of employees per unit of goods;
- indirect costs: rental of premises and equipment, utilities;
- advertising and promotion costs;
- financial costs of servicing a loan or loan.
At the initial stage, you plan to make chocolate yourself. You need to calculate the cost of products to create one tile: cocoa, milk, sugar and other ingredients. You may need to rent a room where you will produce it: divide the rent by the number of tiles that you plan to sell per month. If you need a refrigerator, evaluate its service life and recount the price for a month, and then again on one tile. And so with all the costs.
6. Promotion Plan
The purpose of the promotion is to successfully bring the product to the market and capture its share of consumers.
The promotion plan answers the questions:
- What offer to make to the buyer?
It includes not only the price of the product itself, but also additional services, such as free delivery, discounts and special offers.
- What sales channels to use?
It can be not only direct contacts with customers, but also partner channels.
- How to stimulate sales?
You can enter bonus programs, discounts for regular customers, customer cards.
- What advertising support to choose?
You can use direct advertising, participate in partner events, prepare articles for popular online resources, become a sponsor of competitions in social networks and so on.
Suppose you decide to set the price for a finished bar of chocolate – 150 rubles, and for made by personal design – 200 rubles. When you purchase two tiles, the third will go as a gift. In the future, to stimulate sales, you can offer customers a bonus card.
Since you sell online, the main advertising support will be concentrated on the Internet. But it is also planned that your company will participate in master classes, promotions and partnerships in barter.
7. Organizational plan
Here you describe the structure of the company.
|Form of incorporation||LLC or IP|
|The structure of the company||Planned Units|
|Management Composition||Name, age, education, work experience|
|Staff||The number of employees, their positions and their remuneration|
Indicate which units will be included in it, who submits to whom, and also draw up a staffing table: a list of the necessary specialists with an indication of salaries. It is important to determine the scope of their responsibilities and the order of interaction between units.
For an online chocolate shop, everything is simpler: you hire employees to work remotely. Your main labor resources are a site developer, copywriter, telephone operators for receiving orders, couriers, one-time accountant. In the first months, while sales will be small, you can brew chocolate yourself, take and deliver orders – and save on this.
If you plan to attract partners or buy a finished product for resale for the production of goods, for example, you will sell postcards with chocolate, also include them in the organizational plan. Describe the terms of cooperation.
8. Financial plan
You need to describe all sources of financing and income, as well as all expenses – one-time, regular and periodic – taking into account marketing, production and organizational plans.
Think in advance about how much money you will develop your business. How much of your own funds are you willing to invest? Who could borrow extra? For example, banks or microfinance organizations. Or maybe you will contact investors who will receive a stake in the company and become your partners. Do not forget about the possibilities of state support for small businesses and crowdfunding .
Suppose you are ready to invest 200,000 rubles of your own funds in the project and you managed to get the same amount from investors. In total, this is 400,000 rubles. It is also worth evaluating the expected income in the first month. For example, you plan to sell 100 chocolates for 200 rubles each. Total your expected income in the first month is 20,000 rubles.
And such a calculation will need to be done every month.
Do not forget about taxes that will need to be paid at the end of the calendar year. To calculate taxes, choose one of five tax systems .
For a small online store, you can choose, for example, a simplified taxation system for individual entrepreneurs. Under this system, you pay only the personal income tax – 6%, and in some regions – only 1%. If the profit is negative, there is no need to pay tax.
Given the financial plan, you can calculate how much money you will need to start the project, when it comes to self-sufficiency and when it will be possible to return all the invested funds.
Conclusion: the store will break even for the third month. By the end of the year, the project will fully recoup the investment. The business idea is worthy of implementation.
If you doubt your calculations, it is better to involve a specialist in the preparation of the financial plan. It costs some money, but the costs will be much lower than in the event of an error.” .